The way water moves across the Australian landscape or seeps into it, is wholly determined by the cover of vegetation, and on the condition of the soil surface of landscapes.
The vegetation is driven or powered by the energy of the sun, its volume or mass governed by rainfall, temperature. The level of cover is now determined by human actions or what we like to call ‘management’. Human management in the age of consequence is about trying to capture more of the photosynthetic product of the landscape. It is this desire that has driven agriculture, and human populations.
The paddocks I walk through on my thrice-weekly odyssey to the top of Mount Canemumbola provide lessons on which my mind muses. The walking track goes through a never-cultivated-by-humans piece of land, out of the gradual upward slope of which rises the resistant-to-erosion, volcanic mount Canemumbola.
A mountain knows through the slow ebb of time that it will one day be a flood plain. The vegetation on the track I walk is not in the same state as it was when Europeans, mostly Irish people, began to settle here from the early 1820s. There is certainly the Box Gum Grassy Woodland, although Kangaroo grass is only seen in a couple of small patches among the rocks on the sides of the Mount. There are some of the native daisies and other forbs and lilies that appear when conditions suit them. Unlike most paddocks where stock are grazed in this area, there are young trees growing here, the progeny of the eucalypts that are scattered through this paddock that has long periods without stock.
This year the paddocks beside the track I walk have lush grazing oats crops in them. This has been a very good autumn and the farmers had their crops sown early in March. The often-chancy Autumn rainfall came in a few well-timed falls that led to the crops being so lush. Today the freshly-marked lambs and their mothers are on the crop. Stock prefer diversity in the pasture, the monoculture crop does not suit them, it is too much of a good thing, full of more protein than their gut can process; it usually makes them scour until it is grazed down to the point where the high nutrient leaves have been grazed off and the more fibrous stems of the leaves give a bit more balance and the scouring stops. The farmer, either consciously, or through experience has recognized the sheep’s preference for more diversity and has kept the gate open to the track paddock that has a more extensive variety of plants from which to choose, as well as some dry material from the Spring of 2016. The sheep were almost all in the track paddock, they instinctively know what they like.
We are currently gathering firewood to feed the fuel stove that cooks our food, heats our water, and via a series of thermostatically controlled hydronic radiators, connected to the water-jacket surrounding the firebox of the stove, heats our home. We only cut wood from fallen branches or dead trees whose roots have taken possibly a hundred years to decay to the point that they have come down in a storm. Fallen dead trees, that have big hollow pipes, caused by termites, are important habitat for a large range of species, such as longicorn beetles, centipedes, johnny hairy legs, lizards, snakes, bats, bees and many species of fungi, those important agents of recycling that have the capacity to invade the wood structure of a tree weighing perhaps twenty tonnes, and begin the task of returning the nutrients in that massive structure back into the river of life. So if a tree with these features falls down we will not use it as firewood to keep us warm, but leave it for all the myriad of creatures who can find their home and food in or beside this fallen giant for maybe two hundred years. Standing dead trees are valuable habitat for many species of hollow-nesting birds, probably hundreds of species of insects and spiders, lizards, snakes and bats, to say nothing of the soil biota and fungi that gradually process the structure of the tree and return it to the river of life. In the brittle environments of Australia this can take hundreds of years. In the fire-prone environments of this country it is likely that fallen trees will be oxidized by fire before the weathering and intermittent biological processes of decay have finished their work. In a more humid, non-brittle tending environment the rate of decay of large structures like trees is incredibly rapid when compared to the glacier-like pace of the breakdown of a giant from the once abundant box gum grassy woodland that once covered a great sweep of country west of the Dividing range from southern Queensland in a great arc through NSW and Victoria to South Australia.
Our wood-gathering is another example of the human effect of accelerating natural processes. Aldo Leopold wrote an essay on the demise of the passenger pigeon from the big forests of the United States and Canada last century.
‘ The pigeon was a biological storm. He was the lightning that played between two opposing potentials of intolerable intensity: the fat of the land and the oxygen of the air. Yearly, the feathered tempest roared up, down, and across the continent, sucking up the laden fruits of forest and prairie, burning them in a travelling blast of life. Like any other chain reaction, the pigeon could survive no diminution of his own furious intensity. When the pigeoners subtracted from his numbers, and the pioneers chopped gaps in the continuity of his fuel, his flame guttered out with hardly a sputter or even a whisp of smoke.
Today the oaks still flaunt their burden at the sky, but the feathered lightning is no more. Worm and weevil must now perform slowly and silently the biological task that once drew thunder from the firmament’.
Australia is not dissimilar in area to the United States. Yet it supports fifteen times our population. 25 million compared to 300 million. This is because, while the central parts of the Australian continent are mostly desert with very limited surface water, intermittent creeks and rivers that are mostly inward draining, no forests or big rivers; conversely in the central area of the US, water is abundant, the glaciated soils are young and full of nutrients because only 18,000 years ago it was covered with a mile or more of ice, that stripped off the old soil and ground up the country rock, leaving, when the glaciers retreated, young, rich, new soil. The rivers in the US are big because they are full of melting snow pack from the Rockies, where our rivers rely for their flows on rainfall and run-off.
Whilst our central deserts are dry, they are not sand deserts, like the Sahara. They have incredibly diverse flora and fauna, reptiles and insects. The better-watered parts of Australia, mostly a green coastal fringe and the closer-in western slopes of the dividing range, have felt the heavy hand of agriculture, grazing and cropping. Whilst the rainfall should make them able to support more diversity of life forms than the desert country, agriculture has led to huge losses of biodiversity, so that we have this paradoxical situation where the deserts are more diverse than the better-watered areas. Where agriculture exists, the native grasses and forbs have been replaced by exotic species. This happened within only a few decades of European settlement.
We build dams on our farms, big dams on our rivers. The driest inhabited continent on earth captures these scarce waters to make an irrigation industry possible. We sink bores into the underground aquifers and when the shallow aquifers begin to diminish their yield we drill deeper. Meanwhile our soils, the largest potential water stores we have are limited in their capacity to store rainfall, leak it slowly to underground aquifers, and supply base flow to creeks and rivers as well as act as a storage buffer against drought.
How can this be? Our soils, whether used for grazing or crops have 70% less organic carbon, than when European agriculture began. This limits its capacity to store water, the two greatest assets we have, soils high in organic carbon, and water, are limited by our actions. Exploiting soil organic carbon has long been a pathway to profit in Australia. Another effect of lowering soil organic carbon is to increase the rate of runoff. Thus our low rainfall is less effective, we lose much of it that should be replenishing reserves and being stored in soils for the benefit of all life.
The energy that drives the reaction of photosynthesis makes it possible for plants to manufacture their own food and thus support the entire array of species that inhabit the green mantle of the earth. (There are a few rare exceptions to this). Life makes the atmosphere friendly for life, regardless of circumstance this has held for 3.7 billion years of life on earth. Diversity is the earth’s way of protecting itself from shocks, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms, floods, fires and droughts. And yet the very essence of modern agriculture gives us the opposite. It delivers ecosystems whose diversity is falling away under the heavy feet of modern high energy agriculture. We deal in monocultures or very limited polycultures that have their genesis in death. Agriculture has its origins in the death of all species that might limit our desire for energy in the form of food rich in carbon. In the last two hundred years we have tapped the high carbon resources of the earth with frightening rapidity. Timber, soil humus, coal, oil and gas. These ‘resources’ have their origin in photosynthesis driven by ancient sunlight. We are burning them, like the passenger pigeons, in an uncontrollable blast of life. 370 million years ago these carbon rich coal oil and gas stores were laid down over 50 million years of life. Now we have combusted more than half of these stores in 200 years. That is 250,000 times faster than they were formed. Why does that not seem like an emergency for humans?
The only positive reaction in my mind that I can conjure today, is in the extraordinary capacity of the earth to keep renewing itself.
Observing the results of human behaviour in an age of consequence is a paradox. On the one hand there are the extraordinary benefits we have gained through our ability to enquire and try to understand how the world functions. From the gradual advance in scientific knowledge we are freed from the hard life our ancestors knew as the norm. The paradox is that what we have gained has imposed a terrible and never brought to account cost, on the living systems of the Earth.
Today is a special day at Allendale and one I have dreamed about for fifty one years. We have changed the woody vegetative cover here by planting seedlings, direct sowing seeds, and lately allowing volunteer seedlings to germinate and survive. In 1966 there was only three percent tree cover on Allendale, now there is almost twenty percent.
We’ve been patient, sometimes we even considered importing some birds with whom we’d like to share this land. My father planted mixed species plantations on our few acres of land at Bowral in the belief that species of birds would appear if you provided habitat. I saw that happen as a young boy, so I knew it was possible.
But today I saw for the first time….. Grey Crowned Babblers!!! A few years ago I gave a talk in Cowra called Birds, Biodiversity and Business. At the end of the talk I had a slide of a Grey Crowned Babbler and said that I would die happy if they turned up at Allendale. And they have, two years before I have reached my allotted minimum expected span of three score years and ten. I emphasise minimum here because now I expect there will be a return of other species that were endemic but who have moved further out as we farmers have altered conditions. Effectively we have made our landscapes unfriendly to species that evolved here. We should ponder that deeply.
Our forebears did not know that was going to happen, they had their eye on the main game, fencing, developing and clearing land, making a quid and surviving. Well the main game has changed and now making a quid and surviving is bound up with the notion of diversity. Farms with increasing diversity are cheaper to run, more resilient to shocks and increasing in soil carbon; they are biologically active and getting more so. It is hard to put a value on seeing that busy little bird turning over litter and hurriedly eating whatever showed up.
It was quite unconcerned as I stopped the vehicle to see if I could identify it. I think I received as big a thrill as when we occasionally grew a big crop of grain.
I am hoping the rest of the Babbler’s family is also here or not far away and soon to be resident.
The excitement that little bird gave me today was greater and opposite to the sadness I felt about twenty five years ago when I realised that the Brown Tree Creepers had left Allendale. Back then, I think I knew, deep inside me I had played a part in their leaving. We started growing canola next to their habitat and were using insecticides for earth mites and baits for slugs. That was another shove along the way to finding a way of farming that was more about increasing life, than dealing in death.
Today I felt that the Babbler represented a step in the right direction. Perhaps something we have done helped the process, I like to think it was mostly allowing conditions favourable to this little bird that have been the most important reasons it arrived today and let me photograph it.
The mind of a regenerative farmer is in some ways, akin to a complex ecosystem. Like the tendency of communities of life to constantly be moving towards a more elaborate and diverse state, the ecosystem of the regenerative mind becomes more complex with increasing connections and relationships with the land and the experiences of life.
This type of farming mind is a whole, and part of the whole of the farm, which is a part of the catchment in which it resides. It is part of the region, part of Australia, this country that is part of the Earth. Like the connections of the wholes within wholes, the Earth is ultimately part of the whole of a galaxy, part of the Universe.
A mind begins its journey of life with some innate knowledge gained from the genes of the parents of a new life. As the body in which the brain resides grows, the mind is stimulatedby experiences of light, movement and the love shown by parents, and then interacting with the physical world.
My mind began its journey as part of a child of two doctors living on the side of Mt Gibraltar in Bowral. When I was old enough, I used to go with my father Bill to feed the chooks each morning and collect the eggs. The food scraps from our family were mixed with boiling water and some bran and pollard.
Bill Marsh was a wizard at growing things, his large garden at Mardah Mia, was something to behold. There was a lot of diversity, Rhododendrons, Camellias, Fuchsias, Polyanthus, Azaleas, Roses, Silver Birches, Crab Apples, Laurel hedges, Liquidambars, Oaks, Hydrangeas, Plums, Apples, Gooseberries, Cherry Plums, Loganberries, Boysenberries, Raspberries, Red and Black Currants, and a vegetable garden. He made huge bins of compost and leaf-mould, used to collect his own urine and water it down and sprinkle it on the compost to give it added nitrogen. He was a recycler before it was mainstream. He and my mother Joan had lived through the depression and everything was saved, brown paper bags, tissue paper, string, even two different bags for different types of string.
My father was a conservationist when that word was seldom used, I observed his behaviour and perhaps some of what I saw seeped into my subconscious, to come to fruition many years hence. There’s no doubt in my mind that my current philosophy of farming practice has its roots in those early years. I loved lizards and frogs, we often had jars of frogs eggs hatching and watched them turn into tadpoles and then frogs. We found a magnificent Emperor Gum moth caterpillar and fed her until she pupated and ultimately hatched. This caterpillar was unbelievably beautiful, greenish blue with little tufts of bristles on its head and near its tail.
Dad had read Farmer’s of Forty Centuries by F.H.King, a book written after a US Department of Agriculture study tour of agricultural practices in Korea, Japan and China after the disastrous U.S. Dust Bowl period of the 1930s. It was undertaken to see how these Asian cultures could practice such intensive agriculture without ‘wearing out the land’.
As so often happens, when circumstances drive behaviour, the price of wheat in the UK and Europe had increased hugely after the end of WWI and tractors had been invented that had sufficient power to break the heavy sod of the prairie states in the mid-west of the US. Farmers were trying to cash in on the lucrative European wheat market. This coincided with several dry seasons and there were huge soil losses from ‘dusters’, where the soil, having lost the protective cover of the prairie ecosystem, was stripped away by the wind, causing immense and permanent environmental damage, human hardship, and leading to the establishment of the US Soil Conservation Service. This period of history is vividly described in the Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck. It was a classic demonstration of what happens when we reverse the trend of the diversity of life, and the circumstances of our behaviour lead to simplified ecosystems on farms.
Despite what F.H.King found in Asian agriculture, the resource-rich culture of the US, swimming in energy and timber wealth, developed an exploitative version of agriculture based on huge areas of glaciated soils whose fertility was thought to be inexhaustible. The subsequent exploitation of the soils in the mid west was described by Aldo Leopold as ‘wheating land to death’.
Farmers of Forty Centuries was one book in a series I was aware of but never read until I was in my forties, and fifties. It included, An Agricultural Testament, Humus and the Farmer, The Clifton Park System of Farming, The Rape of the Earth, The Earth’s Green Carpet.
When I was nine years old I went off to a small boarding school at Moss Vale. Here were 130 boys from diverse backgrounds, many of them from farms. There were lots of activities as the school was situated on a farm of about 300 acres. Scouts and Cubs were a great introduction to understanding bushcraft and social responsibility. I loved it and it felt like a bigger version of home. I developed many friendships and was fortunate to be asked to stay with several families during term holidays. This was the catalyst that launched my interest in agriculture, and which has been my passion for all my working life.
One event I remember that shocked me was the effort to control rabbits on the school farm. A new poison had been developed called 1080, colourless, tasteless and odourless and with no antidote. The rabbits were given a few ‘free feeds’ of carrots and then the poisoned carrots were laid on a bait trail. This killed a few rabbits and many times more possums, an environmental disaster, and a demonstration of what happens when chemicals are applied without knowing the effect on non-target species. Even to a young boy of about eleven years this seemed wrong. It happened on the eve of the publication of Rachel Carson’s electrifying book Silent Spring, in 1962.
We always had a family holiday at a village called Bonny Hills, just south of Port Macquarie. There was a store and about ten wooden houses and a beach that stretched for miles. No one was on it and we had a few carefree weeks there. My mother’s brother, Stephen, another doctor, had a house there and as they had four sons and a daughter, and we were four daughters and a son it was a great opportunity to play with our cousins.
There were lots of mind-expanding natural world experiences too. We made our own fishing rods out of Rangoon cane, whipped the guides for the line with silk thread and varnished it to keep out the water. Dad and my uncle used to try for something ‘big off the beach’. They were always hoping for a big jewfish or a school of tailor. My cousins and I were the bait catchers. We found pippies, which we found by doing the ‘twist’ as the tide came in and you’d feel them under your feet. They were khaki, orange, dark purple, and off- white. We learnt how to catch the giant beach worms which were good bait for whiting, flathead and bream. The Jewies liked school or ‘poddy’ mullet and there was a creek that sometimes had a gutter to the sea but mostly it was landlocked by a sand bank. It was called Vinegar Creek because the water was stained the colour of brown vinegar from the tannin in the paperbarks that grew along its banks. We’d set oyster bottles, long thin bottles into which we put some bread that we mixed up and then sank them in the creek with a float attached to the bottle with string. We’d set the bottles in the evening and check them in the morning. There would always be six or so mullet in every bottle, they’d go in head first and could’nt get out! Once, when the sand bank was open to the sea we filled it with sand and after a couple of hours put another sand bank across about fifty metres further down the gutter and caught a couple of good flathead that were heading back to the ocean from the creek.
Then we’d go fishing round the rocks when the tide was coming in. We learnt all about the many life forms that inhabit the tide pools and create an extraordinary web of life, and further infused and added to the complexity of the experiences that ultimately grew into the regenerative farming mind between my ears. There were many sorts of seaweed, a type of algae, chitons, periwinkles, anemones, little darting gudgeons, rarely, a beautiful bright blue fish that we tried and failed to catch. There were eels, octopus, and many different types of crabs, their habitat dictated by their colour and feeding habits. We broke off pieces of cunjevoi which was good bait for drummer and blue groper; we found lots of red rock crabs in the red weed on the big boulders that were a bit further out. You had to watch for the next wave or you’d get knocked over, we loved all this activity. Of course we did not compare our lot with how anyone else lived, we had not yet reached the age of reflecting.
My family have always been keen on birds and there was an avian feast at Bonny Hills. We particularly liked to watch the White-Backed Sea Eagles hunting over the sea and over Vinegar Creek. Sometimes we saw Brahminy Kites and occasionally an Osprey. The sand dunes were kept in place by the coastal heath that was full of birds, wrens, honeyeaters, and the usual Butcherbirds, Peewits, Currawongs and Magpies, and a host of parrots. Holiday houses in those days were not at all pretentious, timber walls with outside toilet, washing machine with a mangle wringer, bring your own sheets and blankets, kerosene fridge. There were five children and we often had a friend staying, so it was not really a holiday for Mum. She just seemed to plough on getting meals and enjoying us having a good time. In the evening we played Scrabble, Squatter and Monopoly, snap, and fish. My sisters and I now look back on those times as highlights in our lives.
One useful skill I picked up was how to relate to other people. There was a lovely old fellow just down the road who had a banana farm and he had a lot of chooks fossicking under the trees. His name was Mr Prout, affectionately known as Prouty. His wife was a very friendly lady who was keen to talk to us all when we went down to buy some eggs. Dad loved meeting people and always found it easy to strike up a conversation, something that seeped into me by osmosis. These social skills became an important part of the regenerative mind as relationship and the social dimension of life is critical in gaining information and knowledge.
In school holidays, I was fortunate to be asked home with several families who lived on farms. Those holidays had a huge influence on my choice of occupation. These farms were at Mumbil, near Wellington; at Merriwa; at Mandurama and at Coolah. The families I stayed with were all incredibly generous to me and I experienced many things. Shooting hares in the dusk in the lucerne at Merriwa, panning for gold in the gravel beds of the Belubula at Mandurama, going for a shot to see if I could get a ‘roo for the dogs, in the black soil hills of the Talbragar catchment at Coolah. Drafting and marking calves, mustering sheep, fencing and being included in various social outings, all these experiences I was so very fortunate to have, and were instrumental in urging me forward to a career in agriculture.
Later I went Jackarooing on a sheep station at Urana. I spent my small amount of free time collecting bird’s eggs and observing the natural world around me. It was a place called Coonong, and once the head station for Sir Samuel McCaughey’s pastoral empire on the Riverine Plains. It had forty four miles of double frontage to the Columbo creek. In its heyday there were ten single men, six jackaroos and two men at the ram sheds as well as an overseer, stud overseer, a book keeper, a groom, blacksmith, farmer and jackaroo’s cook. But when I went there in February 1968, the single men’s dwelling was unoccupied. The drought was upon the land and 20,000 sheep were being fed in many mobs. Unlike many properties, Coonong had two weirs on the Columbo. There was a system of channels that went to almost every paddock. When dams were running short of water, we’d put boards in the weirs and the creek level would rise. We’d open the channel and the water would flow out to dams many miles from the creek. Whilst this was convenient, it meant that when droughts came, stock were held in paddocks that gradually lost cover.
The owners had an irrigation block at Finley where they grew irrigated lucerne. In dry times a semi-trailer of hay would come once a week and be fed out direct to the paddocks. As the truck approached the paddock you’d see a great pall of red dust rising, indicating that the sheep had begun to move to the gate. As well as the hay, the ewes were fed Riverina Stock Feed sheep nuts which came in bags from the feed mill in Narrandera. One of the jackaroos would get on the back of the ute and feed the nuts out as the vehicle drove in a big circle, the rationale for this was that you could get a good look at the sheep as they were fed and report any concerns.
This was in the days before motorbikes, so all stock work was done with horses. There was also a sulky horse called Mike Todd, named after one of Marilyn Monroe’s husbands! One of the senior blokes left for another job and I became the sulky driver, something I loved. The sulky was used to do a lot of the stock droving when shearing, crutching and jetting were on. It was about eight miles or so from the back paddocks to the shearing shed yards. If you did not get the sheep to the yards before ten o’clock, in the hot weather, they would get ‘doughy’ and want to camp, and could not be driven. The strategy was to get out to the paddock just before dawn, lift the sheep off the camp and let them string out and feed along. I had a good quiet dog called Chiko, often called Fat Chick or Chiko Roll. He’d been bred by Father John Morrison, the Parish Priest at Boorowa who, whilst ministering to his human flock, also bred good sheep dogs. Chiko’s big strength was that he didn’t push the sheep. I would sit out on the wing in the sulky, and if the sheep pulled up, I just let them rest awhile and soon they would lead off and this way they never got overheated. Chiko just kept pace with the slowest sheep. Harnessing Mike into the sulky in the almost-dark was a wonderful feeling, no-one to disturb the peace and you could watch the changing colours as the sky turned from darkness to a milky green and then gradually lightened as the first faint tinge of the approaching sun hinted at the golden margin on the clouds and eventually broke the horizon. Finding the sheep in big paddocks was sometimes a challenge as there was a shrub called cotton bush that from a distance looked just like sheep. Mostly if there was any breeze, they would graze into the wind, making them easier to find. If there had been any substantial rain you’d be likely to see Brolgas nesting in the ephemeral swamps, and sometimes even in smaller depressions called gilgais. Once I was mustering cattle off one of the bends of the creek. There was a big Riverine fog and I was trying to find the gate when I could hear the croaky sound of the Brolga’s call. I sat still on my horse and as the fog began to almost imperceptibly lift, I saw two brolgas performing their dance, with wings held wide and heads aloft in a primeval dance that was older than the original human inhabitants of these huge floodplains. They seemed unaware of my presence and I must have watched them for more than five minutes, a real privilege.
When a big mob of sheep is grazing along, they have plenty of room and often flush ground larks and quail out in front of the mob. The whistling of the quail would attract Brown Hawks, who hunted along the front edge of the sheep and often caught quail on the wing.
After the drought of the first year, 1969 started off very dry until in early March, the weather broke and there were several good falls of rain. In one week, the bare ground disappeared under a sea of green in an almost unbelievable switch. 1969 was a good season, the grey clays grew lots of grasses and crowfoot. The sand ridge country grew a big body of corkscrew (Stipa sp), and could not be stocked with sheep as the corkscrew seed burrows into the sheep’s skin and they fail to thrive and are a target for blowflies. We had a couple of fly waves while I was at Coonong. The flies were so bad it was not feasible to bring the sheep in and jet them. So we split up into two groups and went to each paddock and caught the fly-blown sheep, cut the affected wool off with shears and dressed the wound with KFM. In a mob of 350 ewes there could be 30 blown and within a week there’d be another 30. The sheep blowfly was so prolific that they would lay their eggs on the damp washing on the clothes-line. Eventually the fly wave stopped, and normal station work resumed.
Part of the populating of the ecolosystem of a regenerative farmers mind was the conversations I had with all the new people I was meeting. The Hemphill family who brought the hay up to Coonong from Finley, Tommy Martin, the fencer who had his battles with the grog but knew the fencing game inside out, The Craze brothers, shearing contractors from Narrandera who brought their teams in and lived in the shearers huts, for shearing and crutching. Mrs Maher was the cook, the only person we knew who could make rank two year old rams that were culls from the sale teams and now meat for the shearers, taste alright. Mostly the rams were too rank for eating. If you were bringing sheep forward for shedding up at shearing time, you could unsaddle your horse and leave it in a small triangle paddock beside the bridge over the Columbo creek, and go over to the kitchen at the shearers huts, and Mrs Maher would give you a couple of rock cakes with sultanas in them washed down with a pannikin of tea. Jackaroos always packed their own lunch, sandwiches in summer and a couple of chops and some bread to toast in Winter. We’d light a fire and grill the chops on a bit of netting with a wire round the edge; we carried our lunch in a leather saddle bag and a quart pot, in a leather case which was strapped to a couple of dees on the other side of the saddle.
At the end of the day, if we’d been using horses and ended up at the shearing shed yards, the horses would be unsaddled and let go, the harness loaded on the truck or ute, and we’d drive the six miles to the station. The horses would canter home and meet us at each gate to be let through and then let back into the horse paddock. In wet years the mosquitos were savage and we’d light dung fires so the horses could get their heads in the smoke and get some relief from the mossies or they’d gallop all night.
Shearing was the biggest event on the station with 20,000 sheep being brought forward in their mobs and then branded and walked back to their various paddocks. I was very busy at this time as my job was to jump out early, bring a mob in and then walk a shorn mob out. Shorn sheep move along freely, feeding and spreading out, you could get the dogs up on the sulky and they were always fresh. Jackaroos were not allowed back into the quarters after breakfast, I think this was because it was considered good policy to keep out of the cook’s hair so she could get the cleaning done uninterrupted.
Jackaroo’s cooks were an interesting breed, the boss always advised us not to fraternize with them or they’d bend the rules and end up resenting us and leave. This was advice we never followed, and so there was a procession of new cooks who had to get used to us and vice versa. These were good lessons in tolerance and people management.
On Coonong there were two Irish families who had emigrated from Ballymena in Ireland. One was the Sinclair family, Bob and Mrs Sinclair, and their children. Bob was the groom, his job was to kill the sheep to provide meat for the families on the station, including the jackaroos. The dressed carcases would hang over night with chaff bags over them, and next morning they’d be carried up to the fly-proof meat room where they would be cut up; sawn down the mid-line with a manual meat saw, then cut down into chops, and roasts and distributed around the station. This was a weekly job, and for the rest of the week Bob would come out and work with us on the station. He had a brown Border Collie dog called Peg who was super-intelligent. If it was a station work day, Bob would sit on a chair outside the front door of his house with his esky, Peg would lie on the mat, she knew it was not a work day for her. If Bob came out with his cloth and knife and steel, Peg would tear down to the killer’s paddock and by the time Bob had walked down to the yard, Peg would have the killers in the yard. The killers were mostly Burdizzoed rams who had been bloodlessly emasculated with an instrument called a Burdizzo. It would crush the spermatic cord without breaking the scrotum skin. To check if it was adjusted properly you would get a cigarette paper and lay a human hair across it, fold it over and close the Burdizzo. If it was correctly adjusted it would cut the hair but not the paper. I could never work out just how that was possible!
We used to take it week about with bringing the horses in to the yards each morning. Horses were in the homestead yards every morning ready for work. If no horses were needed they’d be let out into the horse paddock. The night horse, Henry, was left in the yards overnight and whoever was ‘on horses’ would jump on Henry before work and bring the horses up to the yards. Henry had very prominent, bony withers that posed a threat to one’s manhood, but he had a loping action that was quite comfortable.
Bob Sinclair also had a few milking cows he’d bring in each evening, they’d go into the cow yard where the calves were shut up at night. The cows were turned out into the paddock next to the cow bails and would have full udders in the morning for milking. The cows get cunning and don’t enjoy having their calves shut up and will try all sorts of tricks to avoid being put in the yard in the evening. Bob was pretty intolerant of their attitude and had a limit to his patience. One evening as I finished work, Mrs Sinclair and the manager, Lionel Smith, were watching Bob bring the cows in; the cows were playing up. Bob rode a push-bike to bring the cows in and one cow was not moving as fast as Bob desired, he had the wheel of the bike between her back legs and was encouraging her with a switch of leaves he’d broken off a tree, and cursing her with a verbal tongue whipping. Lionel said to Mrs Sinclair, ‘Bob’s having trouble with the cows tonight’, to which she replied with her lovely Irish brogue, “If yon coo knew who was chasing her, she’d be on her knees prayin’”.
Tennis was a big deal at Urana the small town not far from Coonong, it was our main social outlet. Lionel Smith had been an army officer and there was a certain military discipline imposed for our own good! We were allowed a car, but had to hand in the keys. There was no leave from the station except for tennis on Saturdays. We worked till lunch time every Saturday, then cleaned up and went in for tennis at the Urana lawn Tennis Club, that bastion of social respectability with not a hint of any grass, the courts were all bitumen or ant-bed gravel. We met all the local station-owners and their families, who were very good to us. They would have been a mine of information to us if we’d ever thought to ask them about their stations, but being young, just out of school, lacking experience and probably floating in a haze of testosterone, we mostly missed the chance. We were probably low on the social pecking order as well.
All these experiences added to the store of knowledge about the practical aspects of managing a sheep farm; there was, however, scant reference, actually no reference to the ecological consequences of management. My love of nature had been forged in the crucible of my family and their intense interest in the natural world.
After many years of managing our farm along industrial lines I began to reflect on the sort of world my management would leave behind. My uneasiness at the impact of my farming methods led me to search for a way of farming that could increase the complexity of life on our farm, rather than simplifying the living community.
This is what I have termed an ‘allowing’ way of managing.
My childhood was awash with words. My parents had followed an academic path, both graduating as doctors. Words seeped into me as I heard my parents speak, and as my father read to us from William Blake and other writers he admired. That is one of my earliest memories, and I have no idea what the story was about. But I do remember the lines of, perhaps the first poem I heard. It was The Arrow and the Song by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
‘I shot an arrow into the air, it fell to earth I knew not where;
For so swiftly it flew, the sight could not follow it in its flight.
I breathed a song into the air, it fell to earth, I knew not where;
For who has sight so keen and strong,
That it can follow the flight of song?
Long, long afterward, in an oak, I found the arrow, still unbroke;
And the song, from beginning to end, I found again in the heart of a friend.’
My parents liked to listen to My Word, a BBC radio program with two teams of very clever and witty contestants among whom were Frank Muir and Dennis Norden, Dilys Powell and Nancy Spain.
My father loved poetry and had also read the classics and could quote famous bits from Shakespeare, The Illiad, and a favourite of his and now mine, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. One of them I can still recall.
‘Awake, for morning in the bowl of night, has flung the stone that set the stars to flight. And lo! the hunter in the East, has caught the Sultan’s turret in a noose of light’.
Later as we began to grow up Dad bought a copy of the only recording of Dylan Thomas’ famous play for voices, Under Milk Wood, with Dylan Thomas reading some of the parts. It was recorded by accident when a patron brought an early tape recorder into the theatre and put it under his seat! It is valuable because it was recorded only weeks before Thomas’ untimely death in America. We listened to it often, and my sisters and I can quote some special pieces. I have several other recordings of it, one with Richard Burton and a more recent version with Anthony Hopkins. They are all wonderful, but nothing surpasses the musical voice of Dylan Thomas.
Under Milk Wood is the story of twenty four hours in the lives of the people in a mythical Welsh fishing village. It is reckoned to be one of the greatest works of lyric prose in the English language. Thomas, like others touched by the creative urge was a complex character, who had his battles with alcohol and died far too young. There are many parts I love, here are a few.
‘To begin at the beginning. It is Spring, moonless night in the small town, starless and bible-black, the cobble streets silent and the hunched courters’ and rabbits’ wood limping invisible down to the sloeblack, slow, black, crow black, fishingboatbobbing sea. The houses are blind as moles though moles see fine tonight in the snouting velvet dingle, or blind as Captain Cat there in the muffled middle, by the pump and the town clock, the shops in mourning, the welfare hall in widows weeds. And all the people of the lulled and dumbfound town are sleeping, now’.
‘Time passes, listen, time passes, only you can see the black and folded town, fast and slow, asleep’…..
….’only you can see the houses sleeping in the streets in the slow, deep, salt and silent, black, bandaged night.’
‘ the sunny, slow, lulling afternoon yawns and moons through the dozy town, the sea lolls laps and idles in with fishes sleeping in its lap. The goat and daisy dingles nap, happy and lazy. The dumb duck ponds, snooze. Pigs snout and snuffle in the mud basking sun. Their tails curl. They dream of the acorn swill of the world, of the rooting for pig fruit, of the smiles and yesses of the women pigs in rut. They rollick and slobber and snore to deep, smug, after-swill sleep.
‘look up Bessie bighead in the White book of Llarregub and you will see the few scattered rags of her history recorded there with as much care as the lock of hair of a first lost love. Conceived in Milk Wood, born in a barn, wrapped in paper, left on a doorstep, big headed and base voiced, she grew in the dark until long dead Gomer Owen kissed her once by the pig sty because he was dared. Now in the light she’ll work, milk, sing, say the cows sweet names and sleep, until the night sucks out her soul and spits it into the sky. In her life-long love light, holily Bessie milks the fond, lake-eyed cows as dusk showers slowly down over sea, byre and town’.
Thomas’ poetry is also memorable, The Force that Through the Green Fuse Drives the Flower, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night and Fern Hill are wonderful and have a deep connection with the Earth.
About ten years ago I bought a four cassette set called Burton at the BBC. On it was a piece called ‘In Parenthesis‘ a ‘shape in words’ describing the author David Jones’ experiences as an infantryman in the trenches in France at the battle of the Somme in WWI. The author, David Jones, gave a wonderful introduction. Acclaimed by some as the greatest piece of writing in the English canon. Burton and Dylan Thomas both had parts in it.
Then I learnt eight monologues by J Marriot Edgar and performed by Stanley Holloway, from a record a grateful patient had given my father. Over the years I have recited these pieces hundreds of times. These pieces follow the misadventures of Albert Ramsbottom and Private Sam Small.
I became interested in the poetry of Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson and C.J.Dennis, and other Australian poets. For me, CJ Dennis had a wonderful ability to evoke the emotion of the Australian soldiers’ experiences in the first World War in ‘The Moods of Ginger Mick.’ He used the vernacular of the working class soldier and showed the feeling of Australianness that was universal and transcended class.
When I was about twelve I learnt The Man from Ironbark and at our annual scout camp the scoutmaster sprang it on me to perform it round the campfire. It went well and in many ways quelled my natural anxiety of performing in public.
In my last year at school we did Coleridge’s wonderful poem, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. I used to read it once a day and a lot of it is still in my memory. There are some inspiring passages worthy of sharing.
‘The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, the furrow followed free, we were the first that ever burst into that silent sea. Down dropped the breeze, the sails dropped down twas sad as sad could be, and we did speak only to break the silence of the sea.
All in a hot and copper sky, the bloody sun at noon, right up above the mast did stand no bigger than the moon.
Day after day, day after day we stuck nor breath, nor motion, As idle as a painted ship upon a painted ocean.
Water, water, everywhere, and all the boards did shrink; water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink’.
Later when I was a jackaroo at Coonong Station at Urana I often carried a copy of Paterson’s poems in my saddle bag and learnt The Man from Snowy River, Bush Christening, Mulga Bill’s Bicycle, and others.
And this process of being interested in poetry has gone on right through my life. At school most people seemed to hate poetry; I loved it because of the density of meaning in so few words.
Later we made friends with some people who had come to Australia from Argentina. Norman and Diana lent me The Gaucho Martin Fierro, a large volume of the story of the legendary Gaucho Martin Fierro, all in verse. It was amazing.
I have a volume of all the lyrics Bob Dylan has written.
One I love is Song to Woody……
‘Hey hey Woody Guthrie, I wrote you a song, ’bout a funny old world that’s a comin along, seems sick and its hungry, its tired and its torn, it looks like its dying, but its hardly been born.
Hey hey Woody Guthrie I know that you know, all the things I’ve been saying and many times more, I’m singing you this song but I can’t sing enough, cause there’s not many men can do the things that you’ve done……
Here’s to Cisco and Sonny and Leadbelly too. And all the good people who travelled with you. Here’s to the hearts and the hands of the men, who come with the dust and are gone with the wind.
I have a copy of Howl, the radical poem by Alan Ginsberg, one of the Beat poets of the sixties. A few years ago I bought Walt Whitman’s amazing book of poems, Leaves of Grass, such modern language in such an old book.
Some books that got me going with reading and the somewhat romantic history of Australia were the works of Ion L. Idriess. Over the Range, Outlaws of the Leopolds, Nemarluk, King of the Wild, The Red Chief, Lasseters Last Ride, Flynn of the Inland, The Cattle King, The Tin Scratchers, My Mate Dick, Horrie the Wog Dog, The Drums of Mer, Gold Dust and Ashes and others I cannot remember.
Birds have been a fascination for me and this certainly came from my parents. Neville Cayley’s What Bird is That? was always out ready to identify any new birds as the seasons turned. Later there were the Peter Slater series of Passerines and Non Passerines, followed by Jack Cupper and Lindsay Cupper’s spectacular, Hawks in Focus and The Readers Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds.
I started reading about conservation and land ethics in the nineteen eighties, and my quest to try and get an understanding of how the earth functions has led me to probably hundreds of incredible books.
The words that express the ideas of the authors are fundamental to gaining more insights in this quest for understanding. I have already referred to the writing of Aldo Leopold in previous blogs. His use of language in his classic work, A Sand County Almanac, and his deep thoughts on the human/land relationship, affected me deeply and continues to do so. Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, was a seminal work and literally earth shattering in its impacts. Rachel Carson’s paradigm shifting books, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, Under the Sea Wind, and Silent Spring, broke new ground and led to the conservation movement. The Odum brothers gave some great insights into how ecosystems work, from an energy use viewpoint. James Lovelock, Allan Savory, Mary E White, Jeremy Rifkin, Daniella Meadows, Hunter and Amory Lovins, Paul Hawkins, Ilya Prigogine and Fritjof Capra, and so many more have all been important in adding to what I think I know about how our home functions.
The words, poems and ideas in all these works give us a relationship with the writers. The relationships we form with others and the ideas we pursue after conversations and reading are in some ways like the relationships and connections between all living things. We are all connected; the earth and all of life are one indivisible whole.
In this is the genesis of our hope for a vibrant, diverse future.
“Every once in a while in the history of mankind, a book has appeared which has substantially altered the course of history”. (Senator Ernest Gruening, Democrat, Alaska).
Despite lots of scientific colleagues knowing the problems with increasing pesticide use in the environment, it fell to a 56 year old Zoologist to crack open the collective heads of the world with a book that hit the mind of humanity like a thunderbolt. Like many who step out of the crowd, she was somewhat of a loner. Her most inspiring attributes were her empathy for all life, courage and tenacity.
“Silent Spring” was a deeply disturbing book about how humans were prepared to compromise all of life, including our own, by selling products whose long term effects were not fully disclosed, or even known. It is hard to gauge the level of courage she had, to go to print with a story so explosive. She was dying of complications from breast cancer a year after the book was published, yet such was her resolve that she testified before a Senate sub-committee on pesticides.
Rachel Carson, a slight, single, fifty six year old woman had a Masters Degree in Zoology. She worked as a science editor for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and developed the belief that people would only protect what they loved. In those days there were few women working in the scientific field. Science was a male-dominated culture.
She wrote three highly acclaimed books about the sea. Under the Sea Wind (1941), The Sea Around Us (1951), The Edge of the Sea (1955), and also Silent Spring (1962). I have all those books and I treasure them.
Under the Sea Wind, Carson’s first book, when submitted to the publisher, did not need any editing or alteration, the only manuscript they had ever received that was so perfect. This gives some idea of the standards Rachel Carson set for herself.
Silent Spring represents a step-change in writing fearlessly about the environment and had a big influence over environmental policy and in a very real way, launched the embryonic environmental movement.
This woman felt an ethical call she could not ignore, driven by the love and care she felt for all life forms, of which she felt she was a fellow traveller. She felt a deep urge to write about the effects of DDT on ecosystems where there had been spraying, sometimes with large aircraft over lakes, so people would not have to be bothered by insects. DDT quickly entered the world of the fast developing industrial model of agriculture where humans dominated the natural world and everything without an economic value was expendable. In the post World War II world, the dominant paradigm was steeped in the belief of man’s domination of Nature. There were large fortunes riding on the wide scale adoption of this paradigm. It was a time when humans were proud of the technology they were able to produce and used it against threats to agricultural production, without question. At this time, post World War II pest control using ecological management was dwarfed overwhelmingly by the growing behemoths of the chemistry businesses, churning out products to control any species, plants or insects that had a depressing effect on yield. Of the total number of economic entomologists working in the United States, 98% of them were employed by the big chemical companies. only 2% were looking at organic pest control. It was all about the flow of money. Huge profits were being made by the big agricultural chemical companies: they, in turn poured money into the universities. Money became available for graduate programs, faculties and scholarships were funded and jobs were available after graduation. It seems as though the educational institutions behaved just like an organism exploiting a food source, and that scientists as a group were grasping the opportunity to work in an emerging field that would also put food on their families table. In this, they proved they were human, whilst their research probably made many of them feel they were gods.
In Germany during WWI, Haber and Bosch had already shown that nitrogen fertilisers could be synthesised using atmospheric nitrogen, the methane from natural gas, in conjunction with a nickel catalyst, under high pressure. The Germans put a lot of effort into cracking the secret of industrial ammonia production because the British had control of the sodium nitrate mines in Chile, so important for munitions. World War I was the crucible that led to a process that would have far-reaching effects, firstly for munitions and ultimately, in a much bigger way, for the negative effects of anhydrous ammonia and urea on soil life. The inventors of the Haber Bosch process won the Nobel Prize in 1918 and 1933 respectively.
Carson collected data that was already known, documented cases of squirrels dying, evidence of Ospreys and Peregrine falcons unable to raise their young due to the effect of DDT making their eggs brittle from the concentration of DDT at the top of the food chain. This process was called bio-accumulation. DDT had been first synthesised in1874, it was found to kill insects in 1939. Its inventor Paul Hermann Muller was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1948.
This tendency to reward those who invent new products and processes that seem of inestimable value to humans in terms of their economic effect is symptomatic of our worrying tendency to value humans over other life forms. Rachel Carson had the courage to show us the consequences of some pesticides in the environment; it took ten years after Silent Spring for the US Government to ban DDT. A deal was done whereby in return for the US ban, the company would be licensed to export DDT to the third world. One deficiency we have as a species is this seemingly unshakable belief in our superiority over other life forms. The tendency we have, to evaluate new products and ideas, in terms of economics, blinds us to the consequences that often are devastating on the environment. Profit overrides common sense, natural caution and ethical considerations. As well as the dubious ethics of big businesses pushing at any cost for profit, governments who licence these harmful products are complicit in the outcomes that affect all life.
We are one of the most recent species on earth. Many see our species as superior to others. To think otherwise for most of us is anathema. Because we can reason, we believe we can do anything, we have been so clever with all the technology we have invented, we forge on. We are so proud of ourselves, humility is scarce. However our ability to think confers on us an obligation to allow all other life to live. We know deep in our souls that this is right.
Other forms or life sometimes proliferate and their population gets out of control. In the natural world, driven by the contemporary energy of the sun, nothing dominates for long. There is always a change that allows other species to enter the fray. This is the way life has always proceeded. Always to an evolutionary state tending more towards elaboration and diversity. This state has been driven by cooperation between life forms, as much as by competition.
We will do almost anything to avoid illness, fear, hunger, the threat of death, or pain. The big difference between ourselves and other species is that we have learnt to play outside the rules of the natural world. This has been possible because we have found more and more ways to harvest a greater share of the product of photosynthesis, leading to larger and larger population. As the human population has risen, so diversity has diminished. We are taking more than our share of the Earth’s resources, leading to the sixth big extinction event, that is happening now.
Consistent with our desire not to suffer, we have systematically found ways to control almost all the infectious diseases, a great leap forward in our desire to avoid suffering.
However, unlike First Nation peoples, since the dawn of agriculture and the trend to food surpluses we have not learned to live in a way that does not threaten the ecosystems of the Earth. Until a little over two hundred years ago the energy source that drove human civilisation was contemporary solar energy. But then things changed.
The nations of Europe, running out of resources, were suffering wars for more territory, a classic symptom of dwindling resources. The big forests of Europe had largely been cut down to build fleets of ships to indulge in battles of conquest, and the struggle for trading rights. Wood was also the major fuel for cooking and heating. Europe was running out of room, running out of wood, societal breakdown was leading to very high rates of crime and punishment. Britain, Spain, France, Portugal and Belgium sent out discovery ships, some with scientific purposes, as well as looking for land and others to open up trade routes.
Europe had found the New World, rich in resources of timber, land and minerals. The invention of the steam engine in 1712 by Newcomen was a major breakthrough and was used to pump water from mines, as coal began to replace wood as a heating and cooking fuel. James Watt followed with engines capable of continuous rotary power from 1781. This ushered in the steam age, factories, and a society using more energy to power its civilisation than could be delivered by the sun. The energy concentrated in coal and later petroleum oil was prodigious and could accomplish so much work when burnt in steam engines and the soon-to-be-developed internal combustion engine.
However, the sources of energy they turned to also had their origin in biology. The fossil fuels to which we have become so addicted, coal, oil and gas are plant derived. They are the product of past photosynthesis. In human time frames they are not renewable, having taken about sixty million years to be laid down in the swamps of the Carboniferous Era. That happened between 354 and 298 million years ago.
Trading and moving goods around the world has increased the energy requirements of society. Aldo Leopold described an ecosystem thus…. ‘a slowly augmented, revolving fund of life’. I find that so elegant! As land was developed and ecosystems simplified, the communities of life no longer had sufficient energy to provide the maintenance energy costs that the previous complex community provided, leading to further simplification. Food chains became shorter with diminishing species, the resilience of ecosystems to disturbance was less. The recycling mechanisms, so important for the constant churn of decaying bodies and plants began to stall. The work done by burning coal, and later, oil, was needed to fill the gap of the energy diverted from ecosystem maintenance to human society. Thus began a dizzying spiral of insatiable lust for more concentrated energy sources, leading from stationary engines to locomotives powered by coal, and from around 1900, oil-driven modes of transport via the internal combustion engine.
As people became more mobile, they carried with them the seeds, bacteria, viruses and a myriad of other life-forms that had evolved elsewhere. This was part of a world-wide pooling of species. In Australia some species, like the European rabbit, cane toads, the prickly pear, cats, foxes and plants such as vulpia, one of the fescues that has covered millions of hectares of country in temperate regions, have pushed out many native species. Species such as Vulpia have taken over enormous areas as a response to set stocking, the common practice when grazing land with livestock.
In human terms, this spreading of the pathogens of Europe, (to which the Europeans were largely resistant from long exposure), had a devastating effect on the indigenous populations of the countries they colonised. When Thomas Mitchell’s exploring party travelled out the Macquarie river to its junction with the Darling, following the earlier attempts by Sturt to solve the riddle of the inward flowing rivers, the aboriginals were covered with pock-marks from smallpox and there were grave mounds all along the Darling. Their population had been decimated because they had no immunity, having lived in isolation from other humans for 50,000 years.
So, fifty years since Silent Spring swarmed onto our bookshelves, what have we changed? Has changing our information base led to transformational change in the way we live? Are we using less biocides now than in 1962? Have we put serious effort into different ways of farming, have we evaluated our models of grazing and cropping and found lower energy, lower impact ways of managing our harvest of the forms of life that lead to conditions friendly to life. Have we learned to create societies that live within the natural limits of the environments they occupy?
Sadly, the answer to all those questions is an indication, both of our cleverness and our lack of wisdom.
Despite the warnings issued by Rachel Carson in 1962 our performance has been worse than when Silent Spring was published. World pesticide use has increased fifty-fold, yet crop losses remain about the same as in 1950, approximately 37%
We seem to be victims of our own success, creators of our own undoing. The very pinnacle of our diverse cultures, civilisation itself, and our cleverness, has led to a population overshoot, consuming so much of the Earth’s annual production that other species are being squeezed out. This is a result that is the direct opposite to the trend of evolution; 3.7 billion years, since the beginning of life. Life has always trended towards increasing diversity and elaboration of life forms. To reverse this gloomy scenario will require sacrifice and a change of direction. The developed nations are devoted to the pursuit of materialism, people are chronically unwell due to a diet lacking nutrients and leading to increasing obesity, soaring diabetes and increasing cardio-vascular problems. There is an ever-widening gap between the wealthy and the poverty stricken.
These scenarios add up to an emergency for the future of all life. Life will continue, though our part in it could change. Because these looming or imminent clashes involve big processes, humans do not see them as requiring urgent change in the way we live. Mostly humans react to emergencies or extreme stresses when lives are threatened or many are dying. Until that happens on a large scale we are happy with the status quo.
A few years ago during the 2002 to 2010 drought in South West NSW, there was an International Conference in Canberra of middle management agricultural officers, district agronomists from all over the world. They did a field trip to a leading farmer’s property. The farmer was saying how tough things had been for so long, loss of ground cover, failed crops, financial hardship. When they were getting back on the bus a tall man from Africa came up to the farmer and said, “So, things have been bad eh?” ‘Yes, never seen it this bad’. “So, how many people have died.” That was a sobering question for Australian agriculturalists to ponder.
The emergency we are in has hardly registered in Australian minds, or the minds of humanity, generally.
Like Rachel Carson, I have to realise that some pesticide products are perhaps necessary, but the registration and approval processes, often evaluated by the companies that produce them, leave much to be desired.
Human beings so often embrace technologies that are convenient and which confer a perceived benefit, especially if it is a financial benefit. We will need to be much more careful that our desire for profit does not override common sense. This is a question of ethics.
In 2014 Mary and I drove out to the Flinders Ranges in South Australia to get a look at the great inward-draining Lake Eyre Basin. We drove out via Nyngan where we were lucky to get the last cabin in the Bogan River camping area.
There had been a lot of rain in the weeks before we left home and as we headed out into the dry country of the west the views were of a flat landscape completely covered with flowers that had been awakened by the rain. We passed through the mining and pastoral town of Cobar, where the country looked hard, but was still covered in a blanket of flowers of every hue. We stayed a couple or three days at Broken Hill, the mother lode that set up BHP, Australia’s biggest company. Sidney Kidman, the Cattle King had a share in the mine, but swapped it for some horses and cattle. Although he may have rued the day he did that deal, he amassed a pastoral empire he reasoned would make him drought proof, due to the spread of stations in Victoria, South Australia, NSW, Queensland and the Northern Territory. He was a genius at organising so much land at a time when there was no communication as we know it. The Overland Telegraph certainly helped and his other big skill was in choosing good people. His managers respected him greatly and were intensely loyal.
The flat landscapes of the west give a clue to the immense amounts of stable geological time necessary to create these vast floodplains. The generally flat topography of inland Australia is the result of the more than 300 million years of erosion and deposition since Australia was last covered by an ice sheet. Glaciation, tectonic upheaval and volcanic activity are the three big land and soil forming processes. Unlike North America, Canada and most of Europe that was covered in the vice-like grip of two kilometres of ice only 18,000 years ago, Australia has been free of glacial ice for 300 million years.
Most other countries have rivers that flow to the sea, whereas many of the rivers in Australia are inward draining and terminal. The Lachlan river in NSW flows mostly west-south west and terminates in a 30,000 ha swamp. The flood plain of the Lachlan is so flat in the west that creeks are not tributaries, but flood-out creeks flowing away from the river. So flat is this area that the Murrumbidgee and the Lachlan are somewhat parallel and depending on which of these rivers is in flood, the Lachlan can flow overland and meet the Murrumbidgee or vice versa. The Hay plain is thought to be the largest, flattest, part of the world. Once a chenopod shrubland, grazing over the last 160 years has gradually turned it into a mostly annual grassland.
Vast areas of this semi-arid country has gradually been invaded by native shrubs, species such as Hop-Bush, Eremophyla and Turpentine. This has reduced the original stocking rate of the area covered with shrubs by a third to half the rate it would carry in the 1950’s. As we left the Shrublands of Broken Hill and headed down into South Australia, I recalled speaking to a station owner from White Cliffs who told me that when he left school in the 1960s one of his jobs was to shovel dust out of the ceilings of the homestead to stop them falling in. After the shrubs arrived, the dust storms stopped as the land was covered. I spoke with this fellow about ten years ago during the 2002 to 2010 drought and he told me that a lot of the shrubs were dying and native perennial grasses were growing beneath the dead shrubs. Perhaps this was nature’s way of protecting the soil and providing cover for the next layer of succession to take place. Effectively, the conditions changed to favour the grasses and forbs, over the shrubs.
We went through the towns of Orroroo and Quorn, where cropping and livestock, mixed farming was well established. These town were just south of Goyders Line. Goyder was a government surveyor who drew a line on the map, basically the 200 mm isohyet line, above which cropping would fail for lack of moisture. Over the years when seasons seemed to be a little better, farmers cropped north of the Line, and you can see the abandoned farmsteads as you travel north towards Marree, which is south of Lake Eyre South and had a rail line to freight cattle from the Birdsville track to markets in the south. This line was closed in1987.
Then on to Hawker on the southern edge of the Flinders Ranges National Park. As we approached Hawker the abrupt ramparts of Wilpena Pound came into view. Wilpena Pound is a roughly circular geologic feature, the outer edge is defined by steep cliffs and the centre is dished like a gigantic bowl. There were sheep stations in the centre area before the Flinders Ranges National Park was constituted. The mostly dry, intermittent creeks of the Flinders are usually seen by travellers as sandy, gravelly dry beds. They are home to some of the largest River Red Gums you will see anywhere, the most famous of which is the Cazneaux tree made famous by the landscape photographer, Harold Cazneaux, whose 1937 photograph of it, he titled, Spirit of Endurance. Whispering Gums, a poem written by Bruce Simpson, one of the last of the Northern Territory packhorse drovers, evokes the image of this historic tree :
Sentinel gums by the river, twisted and gnarled and grey, saplings back in the dreamtime, sentinel gums today.
Alone by the long years drifting, sturdy and grey and old, unmoved by a thousand tempests, unconquered by droughts untold.
Whispering gums by the river, close-wrapped in your own mystique , the stories that you could tell us, if you only could but speak.
We had booked a flight from the Park Centre at Wilpena, to fly over the range heading north, flying over Lake Eyre which was almost full, Cooper Creek was still running into the Lake from flood rains north of Longreach a month earlier.
Our son Matthew had tragically died of complications to a congenital heart problem, seven years earlier, and we had decided then that we would not fly together in light aircraft in case something went wrong, leaving our young daughter, Alice, parentless. However we decided to make an exception because the Lake only filled infrequently and we felt we may not get another chance to see it. As the day of the flight approached I could detect some understandable anxiety developing. Mary decided to ring the Park Centre to assure herself that we were having a very experienced pilot. ‘Yes Madam’, they assured her, ‘you have our senior pilot’. The plane landed and we watched to get a look at the senior pilot. Out of the seat stepped a boyish-looking young fellow who looked about sixteen! He had, however, qualified as a pilot in controlled air space in Europe and had a thousand hours under his belt. He flew us faultlessly!
We took off on a perfect day and climbed up over the lip of Wilpena Pound, from the air it was an incredible view of the somewhat symmetrical shape of the Pound, the tall, abrupt ramparts of the outer edge and the dished centre made the aircraft feel gnat-like against the massive geological structure beneath us.
I found it impossible not to reflect that when this formation was uplifted by a mighty force around 540 million years ago, and wore away over huge eons of time, humans were not in existence. In fact this range has been a geological feature of the earth for 10,800 times that aboriginal people have been in existence. We consider that the first human occupants of the Australian landmass is the oldest civilisation there has been, and it is, yet in terms of the history of the world even the most ancient society is dwarfed in time compared to Earth-time.
We flew over the ancient reptile-like spine of the Flinders range, Lake Frome was to the west, as long as Lake Eyre, but much narrower. We flew over the lake which in some parts is below sea level, and landed at Mulloorina Station for a cup of tea and fuel. Drought was upon the outback and panels in the men’s Mess shed showed the history in numbers and photographs, of the station decade by decade. Two mates who had a water drilling business at Quorn had bought the station and each family managed it year about. However this proved difficult, and they decided to toss a coin and one family took the drilling rig and the loser got the station! The station-owner declared himself the loser! The panels showed the ebbs and flows of this edge-of-the-desert grazing business, dictated by the weather. Out there it is too expensive to intervene, when it gets dry, stock are sold to better conserve ground cover, and provide some cash. In the 1950s there were 20,000 sheep and 2,000 cows, trucks and an aircraft and plenty of staff. The fortunes of the dry stations are a mirror of weather and when we were there the plane had long ago been sold, no staff except the manager and the stock had been wound backwards to 400 cows. These stories were told by Francis Ratcliffe in Flying Fox and Drifting Sand. A story of the dust storms of the South Australian, Western Victoria, NSW and Queensland western areas that lost shrub and grass cover in the 1930s.
A story of enormous environmental degradation, brought on by set stocking with sheep and then rabbits in plague proportions who killed the saltbush. The back story was of the incredible resilience of the people who lived in these remote areas. Trapped, with no transport out for stock, they were condemned to watch their livestock die of hunger and thirst. Ironically, the very thing that made it possible to stock these dry areas, was the technology that allowed the tapping of the Great Artesian Basin, which encouraged owners to hang on longer in the hope of rain. When this country relied on surface water (large ground tanks put in with horse teams and scoops), there were large areas that could not be grazed, due to distance from water. But when the Great Artesian Basin was tapped many of the bores were under pressure and the water did not need to be pumped and so bore drains fanned out from the bore-heads on a contour, and water could go to areas that had previously been stockless. This of course led to greater denudation of the plants and eventually dust began to blow, a depressing scenario for any farmer who cares, and they all would have. As we flew back to the Wilpena visitors centre in the early dusk, the light was coming over the ranges obliquely, such that the western slopes were sunlit while the eastern slopes were in shadow. There had been some storms about ten days before our arrival, and the hills of the ranges looked like they had been dusted with light green powder and sprinkled with trees, in that almost-eerie light.
It was a fitting visual masterpiece, unable to be created by humans, created only by the complexity and power of all things connected, and inestimable time; an Earthly, but other-worldly scene that burned these images deeply into our consciousness.
We could not avoid the observation that all the country we had covered on this memorable trip, bore the mark of our species. We, who care, do not condemn those who, often forced by economic circumstances chose their business over the complex landscape. In the time since those days of the 1930s we have developed technology and understanding that should ensure that those scenes do not happen again. Now, people like me are sure that the best decisions are always to manage for increasing diversity and complexity. Gradually farmers are inching towards a way of looking at land where more of us are seeing ourselves as part of a biotic community, rather than the directors and controllers of it.
Small steps, and a long way to go, but a good beginning. Perhaps Churchill’s famous quote after Montgomery’s troops’ victory in the desert at the Battle of El Alamein would be appropriate. “This is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning”.
The 11th of March and 24th of April are significant days in our family’s history. This year, 2017, is a significant year for us as well. This year, the 24th April marks ten years since our courageous son, Matthew lost his battle with the difficult cardiac condition with which he was born.
This is what his cardiologist wrote to us at the time.
“I found it so sad yet appropriate that you had phoned me on ANZAC day to tell me of Matthew’s passing- he had in some senses been a soldier against the travails that fate had sent – determined, confident and brave, but in such a sweet and mild-mannered fashion. As a child he had been asked to bear a psychological burden that few of us could imagine, as well as a physical burden with which he coped with courage, dignity and grace.
In some ways, he had an angel’s character, and I always felt a little inspired and in awe of his “just get on with it” attitude. The fear was there, I guess, and certainly some vulnerability too, but his optimism and force of character were such that he could conquer them whilst remaining a soft and caring boy.
I can truly tell you that I cared for him a great deal and will never forget his courage and bravery in the face of his terrible illness. He was blessed, however, with two extraordinary parents, and I mean that very genuinely. Your love shone through him, and that’s what helped him be strong. I hope his sweet nature and determination to be well, for as long as he was able, might give you a glimmer of a smile at times when you’ll just want to cry.
I and his other doctors were as one, in our admiration for this most special of young men, taken just far too soon”.
I always feel uncomfortable putting up the piece where the doctor talks about my wife and I as extraordinary parents. We were always just doing what came naturally to us and when there were problems needing hospital treatment (thankfully not often), we had extraordinary support from friends at home who looked after the property and stock so we could be with Matthew. These kindnesses we will never forget. Doctors and nurses always commented on Matthew’s calm and level headed approach to his afflictions. Some of this came innately from him, but a lot of it was to do with the relationship he had with his extraordinary mother, Mary. He had a wonderful sense of humour and was a joyful young man, despite the burdens life had thrown his way.
Although it is intensely personal, I feel a need to share our feelings in the hope that those who are dealing with difficult medical problems, especially when affecting their children, may take heart and know that despite the darkness that descends after the death of a child there is life to be lived and at some stage you can begin living it again.
Despite our desire to hold back time, time has kept ebbing away, taking us further in time from our dear son Matthew. For me, that was one of the most painful feelings, that of wanting to be in the last moments of holding him in our arms, forever. In those moments that became days and weeks we could hardly function. We could hardly sleep, we cried oceans of tears and tried to find solace with each other; nothing would take away the pain. Getting meals only happened through the kindness of the people of Boorowa who all knew Matthew, and cared for us.
You become aware of a whole lot of connections, the passing of which brings on waves of grief. Over many months and with the help of a wonderful grief counsellor we gradually began to feel the size of the waves of grief, and their frequency, almost imperceptibly, diminish. Passing Matthew’s birthday, celebrating his sister’s birthday without her soul-mate, was tragic. Christmas, a time Matthew loved so much, lost its meaning. Family gatherings, doing the things he loved like sharing a meal in a favourite restaurant, all these little life events we take so much for granted, became painful for a long time. For about six weeks we were protected from the gloom by products our bodies made to put us into a somewhat numb state. This made us able to seem to the world, that we were coping. There is a paradox in this. People would come up and kindly want to know how we were. If we were moved to tears, they would think we were not ‘coping’. But in reality if we were showing our emotions we were alright. If we were stoic and holding it in, we were much less likely to be alright. With grief, the world judges us to be dealing with things well when we are not being outwardly emotional, but the opposite is closer to the truth. After six weeks our bodies stopped the protective cover and we were back to coping on our own resources. This was a time of gloom and we were probably depressed, I am a farmer and we had a lot of sheep at the time. I could only do what I absolutely had to do, and no more. I spent lots of time walking round the paddocks and weeping. The tears you shed at these times flush some of the adrenaline out of your system and you feel a bit at peace after the tears. We never tried to hold back the tears, having read about their physical value and the emotional release that made life bearable.
No-one trains you for grief, often it is an event that comes out of the blue. In Matthew’s case he was going downhill physically and had gradually been putting on fluid because his heart was not able to do enough work to keep him well. He had been in hospital at RPA where it was thought he had suffered a virus that had left him with less heart function. The doctors felt his only option now was a heart-lung transplant, an operation where you trade a cardiac problem for an anti-rejection problem, so we went up to St Vincent’s where they perform these very intimidating surgeries. My wife and I seemed to function well in a crisis, our focus was always on Matthew’s welfare, we stayed at the hospital to be near Matthew and tried as best we could to understand his situation. All the doctors we consulted over Matthew’s life were outstanding, compassionate, communicative and full of empathy.
But deep within us we always knew that his unique heart would begin, at some stage, to fail. That was what was going on in January 2007 when he ended up in RPA and St Vincent’s.
Because Matthew was born with a complex heart condition, he needed a lot of care when he was a baby, he was tiny at birth and we picked up on the vibes of hospital staff that his future was uncertain. He was blessed with an extraordinary mother who had an instinct for knowing what he needed and he gradually grew. In those early days he was getting help from a diuretic and another drug called lanoxin to make his little heart squeeze a bit harder. After a couple of years these drugs were stopped and he lived the rest of his twenty one years without the assistance of medication.
I have often reflected on the effect on us, of the constant anxiety that we felt for Matthew and his future. It is hard to evaluate, we seemed to be normal and Matthew carried his burdens lightly because I think he sensed that we were concerned for him.
Matthew and a friend he had in Boorowa used to try and write really good language and stories to each other on a blog, it was a sort of literary ‘duelling banjos’, and after he died Shaun went looking on the internet for something Matthew may have written of a personal nature, about his view of his own life. He stumbled across what is for us an incredible insight of a young man speaking about his trying to reconcile his life with his own mortality. We were so grateful to have this and would certainly never have found it ourselves.
It is interesting that we only really think about how precious life is when someone near to us dies, or is on the fast track there.
Sorry if that sounded morbid, but really it’s odd.
My Grandfather died on Sunday, whilst I was on a plane from Brisbane to Canberra, and steadily contemplating my own mortality as we went through a rather nasty batch of turbulence. I found out that afternoon, around 3.
Death is something that I have come to accept over my course of being in and out of doctor’s offices, and my two long stints in hospital. When I was about ten, and suffered a cranial abscess – hospital was a cool place that had abundant quantities of ice-cream and Nintendo. That was until one morning, about half way through my ten week stay. I was subject to frequent CAT-Scans to monitor the size of the abscess, a process that started with fasting many hours prior to the scan.
I had organised for the nurses to bring me some vegemite on toast at 5 in the morning (when I inevitably woke quite frequently) so I could eat, and still have “not eaten’, for the designated time before the scan.
5 came and went, so did the scan….. alas, no vegemite arrived, nor did the nurses who had promised so earnestly to deliver. I became quite stroppy when I saw the nurses next, they apologised, and stated that they had forgotten.
I learnt several days later, that the reason for their disorganisation was that the young Chinese boy in the room next to me had chosen to pass away that morning, and they were attending to his body. It has been a rare occurrence when I have felt the same guilt and disgust I felt for myself that morning.
That is my first most memorable memory of death.
Not that I wasn’t aware of it prior to that experience…. My first chronological memory of death is when Mum’s aunt died… I was about 8.
Since my philosophical and emotional awakening to the concept of death at age ten, I have been interested in the subject of mortality in general, and especially my own. There was a stage of about two years, from the age of 12-14 when the concept terrified me…. I dreaded an early death.
This stage thankfully passed however, and I gradually became more accepting about death.
People often say to me-“it must be so hard being you, with your heart and all”, possibly not verbatim, but along those lines….
I am not conscious of having had a particularly hard, or depressing life… This burden has probably fallen more upon my parents, as, like most people, they would compare what I have to deal with to what a ‘normal’ person is like. I can understand that this would be an ongoing source of worry for them, even though it is only infrequently one for me. I will say, however, that ‘my lot’ has probably forced me to deal with issues and ideas (such as mortality), at a much younger age than most.
I started planning the music that will play at my funeral at about age fourteen.
The list has been constantly changing since that time when it comprised of “Lightning Crashes” by Live, “Brian’s Song” from the Life of Brian and “Ironic” by Alanis Morrisette. Currently, the List is “DOA” by Foo Fighters, “Everybody Hurts” by R.E.M., “Winning Days” by The Vines, and “Till Kingdom Come “ by Coldplay.
This is not something I sit down and plan… I don’t have it written down (well actually now I s’pose I do). But if I hear a song that moves me, or makes me laugh, it will probably end up on the list.
Someone once told me this was a very morbid thing to do…I disagree; it brings an element of life and fun to a topic that is all too often tabooed. And when inevitably this mix tape gets played, I would like to think my spirit would like to listen to some tunes, and share a major part of my life with everyone who turns up.
So where does this lead us? What is the conclusion to this philosophical voyage?
A wise being once said “’tis not the destination that is important, but the journey in between”.
So on Monday, after Grandpa’s Celebration of life Service, I’ll lift my glass and say a silent toast.
“To Life, Death and other Miracles”.
Knowing that Matthew had reconciled himself to his future was incredibly comforting to us. And to know that he did not feel his life had been hard or depressing made us feel awe at his strength of character.
In the days between Matthew’s death and his funeral, his four cousins, big strong men mostly working in the mining game in Western Australia wanted to do something to help. They came over and spent a couple of days cutting and carting a mountain of wood. We were so grateful for this. With each wheelbarrow of wood I wheeled over to feed our stove, I would remember their love for Matthew and the effort they so willingly expended for us, in memory of him. It took a couple of years to burn through this wood and I knew where the end of it was. I did not want to burn the last pieces as it was removing a connection to Matthew, but eventually I had to concede that this wood, whilst harbouring a connection and memory of Matthew, needed to be burnt. We reflected on it as it warmed our shins in the Winter of 2009.
The years have ticked by, our memory of Matthew has not faded, we still remember with fondness the the warm hearted, affectionate young man who we loved so much. We can never forget the many kind acts people have made to help us through, out of their respect for Matthew. His life in many ways was a low key one, due to his physical limitations, there were many activities he was unable to join in. Sport was something that was beyond his capacity, but he did not let that worry him. In fact he was always bemused at the disproportionate amount of time people devoted to it. His life, and his attitude to the difficulties his heart condition imposed upon him, affected many people. He was a gregarious young man who loved people, and he was very comfortable joining in conversations at any level. His intelligence was immediately evident.
He had a wonderful sister who loved him and whom he loved. Their love for each other started the moment he first cast his eyes upon her, something I will never forget, that look of love in his eyes! She was a very generous sister, and even though she was six years younger than Matthew, she would carry his school bag up the drive, as it was a challenge for him. They spent a lot of time just being with each other and in the many photos of them, he always has his arm around her.
One thing we always did was to have a few weeks up the coast at Byron Bay in the Winter. It was warm there in late August and Matthew loved the sand. We’d spend hours on the beach reading a book out loud and building sand castles. It was a welcome respite, and we all had a pleasant time and recharged our batteries.
Life does not allow one to spectate for too long. Inevitably, time grabs us by the collar and drags us back into the river of life. You begin to be able to do the things you did so easily before this changed reality. And that is what your life becomes, a different version of what went before, with a memory that never leaves your consciousness. For a long time they are memories of sadness, but eventually through the general optimism that is a feature of the human spirit, the memories can be faced with a feeling of unending love and gratitude for having been entrusted with the care of one so inspiring as Matthew was.
The deep feelings never leave you, even now after ten years I can find myself giving a sob from the depths of my being when a vivid memory jumps into my thoughts. That is good, and a sign to me that his life and our connections are still strong.
When I came to Boorowa in 1971 there were fifty two children going in to town on the Cowra road school bus. Today there are only three on the same bus. This is a common theme all over Australia. Where have the people gone? Perhaps more importantly, why have they gone?
The popular reason given is that the terms of trade in the farming game have made it unviable to employ station hands. Another part answer is that mechanisation has led to less need for employees. Contractors have filled some of the now vacant spaces left by the lower levels of rural employment.
Once, most farms had a farming plant consisting of a tractor, disc plough, scarifier, harrows and a combine for sowing. The plough, cultivator and harrows lost favour for several reasons, namely, cultivation destroyed soil structure, and the time and fuel costs were hard to justify when compared with the seeming efficiency and lower erosion risk of using herbicides. Over the last thirty years with the advent of herbicides, a spraying machine of some sort has been considered essential. In districts like the south west slopes of NSW where we farm, many farm businesses have found it difficult to justify replacing their ageing plant, and have begun to rely on spraying contractors and sometimes sowing contractors as well. Perhaps the fact that plant was too big a capital item to replace means that the farming system could not make enough to cover the costs of maintenance. Machinery of all sorts has kept on growing larger, reflecting the demand for getting large areas of crop prepared and sown in a specific window of time and with a minimum of labour.
All the above reasons for the depopulating of the Australian landscape seem logical enough, but they miss one factor that I have never seen mentioned as a possible cause. The missing part of the equation is that I think we have converted so much of the original Natural Capital existing when Europeans started farming this land a little more than two hundred years ago, that the land simply cannot support as many people as it once did. Natural Capital has been converted into other forms of capital, roads, bridges, fences, houses, institutions like education, churches, Universities, the Law, energy supply. All the things that make up the society we enjoy and certainly don’t want to give up. When we convert all this natural capital, we call the money made from the conversion, income, but it is in fact a liquidation of capital.
We all know that a business that consumes its capital will soon fail.
When we convert natural capital to other forms, this plays out on the farm as a business that has increasing cash costs. These cash costs are in the form of purchasing the goods and services once provided at no cost by a diverse community of life. The simplified community left after the wholesale conversion of natural capital can no longer provide the services of water filtration and storage, weed control, soil structure, nutrient recycling, storage of humus, (soil carbon), seed and seedbed provision, erosion control, nutrient recycling, maintenance of structure and diversity.
Yesterday I was in a Sydney supermarket and I eavesdropped on a few conversations as people, mostly a parent with some children chose items for their trolley. Firstly I was heartened by several discussions about buying organic rather than the industrial version of a product. Secondly I was buoyed by the number of items for sale with a story about how they were produced. It seems there is a growing groundswell of mindful purchasers. Perhaps feeding people, including farmers, information about the negatives of the industrial or commodified way of producing food may not be the way to drive change. It is just possible that the customer’s desire to eat a more nutritious and healthy diet could be the catalyst for change on the farm. Farmers certainly react to price signals. When the sheep market has a decline, there is a gradual swing to cropping and cattle. Nothing is static, witness the booms and busts of the dairy, pork and beef enterprises, not to mention the wool market roller coaster.
Making healthy choices about eating could be the greatest saving for the national health budget. Currently the cost to the nation of diabetes is $6 billion annually and rising. Recently there has been a move to introduce a sugar tax. Processed food, the increasing amounts of sugar in many food products and aggressive marketing by large corporations driven more by profit than ethics, have fuelled the increase in obesity and diabetes in our people. Is it morally defensible for corporates to take a free ride on profit while marketing products they know cause an epidemic of chronic illness?
People seem to be making their own minds up about healthy eating, leading to lower medical costs and less chronic illness in society. We are taking small steps in the right direction and have a long way to go before this trickle becomes a flood.
I have been almost thirty years on a quest to influence the process of change to land management that is profitable whilst allowing the inherent regenerative capacity of landscapes to be expressed. This is a long game and one which will not be easily won. For me it has been a journey of digging out information that has led to a different understanding of ethical land management. At times it seems the forces amassed against the idea of doing things that we know deep inside us are right and good for the Earth, are insurmountable. However, some of the most inspiring work humans have done are in times of crisis.
This is what fills me with hope
When families see their children falling victim to food that leads to ill health and lives of limited options, many are moving to food that promotes health. When you see the number of organically produced products in our shops it is obvious the corporations running them are shifting their range to what people are demanding.
As humans we are weak, we blunder on blindly, Lemming-like in pursuit of things that seem to offer value at low price, while not thinking about the consequences and costs in ill-health and low option futures.
Last evening I was putting a vehicle in the machinery shed which has an open front. I could hear a Grey Thrush singing the end of the day, the liquid notes always make me stop and think how generous this beautiful bird is to share her landscape with us. As I sat in the vehicle before turning it off, she flew into the shed and jumped into her nest which was in a small ice cream bucket on a shelf. She cast her eye over her eggs before settling. All I could see of her above the edge of her nest was the very top of her head, and her limpid, dark eye. Was she regarding me with trust or as a threat? I opened the door and emerged slowly, then went over to my quad bike, started it and reversed out of the shed….she didn’t stir!
Over the years we have had Thrushes nest in a creeper on the water tank next to the house, and for several years a pair made a nest in a flower pot. They are a sociable bird and often sit on our kitchen window sill observing us with that beautiful eye and head cocked on one side. What we wouldn’t give to have an insight into their thoughts about us!
We have had Willie Wagtails nesting in the vehicle shed and sometimes a pair of Rufous Fantails attach their spider-web, wine- glass-shaped nest to a wire that is hanging from a rafter. Every year several pairs of White-Browed Scrub Wrens nest around the garden, usually near the back door. They are business-like fellows and have a workman-like manner. One year they made their nest in the top of an old stroller!
Language is a defining attribute that has driven our capacity to succeed, first at hunting via cooperation, and then, over time, at devising more and more ways to gather the products of photosynthesis for our own advancement. I was thinking about this recently; other species communicate, some even cooperate in the hunt. But animals seem to be born with a voice that is distinctive for their type. All magpies sound like others of their kind, they have the same song and as far as we know, do not converse.
We often have other farmer’s cattle here, paying to eat the grass we manage. This is called agistment. A couple of years ago I was helping the owners bring the cattle over the road that bisects our farm. I was on the road stopping traffic, there was a stockman in the paddock on a quad bike, bringing the cattle to the gate. The bike made a pop, pop, pop, pop, popping sound. I heard the sound of another bike, but there was no other bike. Then I saw one of nature’s great mimics, a restless flycatcher, or scissors grinder. It had heard the bike in the paddock and was duplicating the sound with it’s own voice.
Living on a farm you get the chance to see many facets of the natural world that are always breathtaking and astounding. If you are lucky you will be startled and amazed, as I am on an almost daily basis. For example this morning I was out at 6.30 and there was a heavy dew after 49mm of rain two days ago. Every grass leaf had a droplet of dew right at its tip picking up the sunlight. It was like riding through a field of diamonds. These images are often fleeting and easily missed.
Back to amazing animal stories. A few years ago we had a mob of about three hundred steers on agistment, they were very quiet having been here for a few months. I received a call one evening from the owner saying he had bought another hundred steers at the sale in Wagga Wagga. Could we manage another hundred? The answer was yes, as it was a good spring and we had an abundance of grass. These cattle had been trucked down from Alice Springs and sold in Wagga. Cattle from the northern inland pastoral areas do not see many people and can take a while to adjust. We put this new mob in with the other three hundred. A few days later it was time for a move to a new paddock. The paddock they were moving to was down hill from the one they were leaving. To accomodate the bigger flight zone of the new mob I opened the gate and moved about one hundred and fifty metres back out of the way and kept perfectly still, hoping the quiet mob would lead the nervous ones through the gate. All went well and they went through quietly, except just as the last few were going through one took fright and went tearing up the hill about 250 metres from the gate. Going through a gate was too scary for him! We have portable water troughs here that we tow from paddock to paddock and hook up to our water system using a length of 50mm poly pipe hooked up to a cam lock fitting.
I thought I’d just go and get the trough and set it up in the new paddock and the recalcitrant steer might come through, the pull of the mob below might be greater than his anxiety. The rest of the mob was grazing happily about 400 metres away, downhill from the gate. As I was hooking the trough up, I looked up, and to my complete surprise about eight steers from the old mob came away and cantered up the paddock, through the gate, and surrounded the frightened steer and walked back down the hill and led him through the gate!
If I had not seen this and you told me this story, I probably would not have believed you. However I did see this and am still amazed. Was the lone steer communicating, if so I could not hear him? Were those eight steers showing compassion and empathy for a fellow beast? I do not know, but I feel it was an example of the many unexplainable events that occur on farms.
A few years ago I enrolled in a course called Low Stress Stock Handling. This was a two day course run by Bruce Maynard and Bruce Christie and was based around the ideas and observations of a wise stockman from the USA, Bud Williams. I often tell people it was the two best days of training in agriculture I ever attended.
Stockmen are mostly proud of their ability to handle their stock, either sheep or cattle. Many would feel that if they put their hand up for a course like this it might signal to others, and maybe even themselves that something was lacking in their ability. The human animal is a complex creature!
I reckoned I was a pretty good stockman. After all we had a mob of 5,500 merino wethers marching around Allendale? The paddock moves were accomplished, without dogs. With our type of management dogs are mostly necessary only when putting mobs through the yards.
Our dogs were good and easily capable of helping me draft this big mob when some were due to be shorn. When you work a lot with stock, you develop a close bond with your dogs, and over the years when I was a shepherd, I was fortunate to have had several outstanding canine mates without whom my work would have been impossible.
There was Fort, short for fortitude, a black and white border collie, and as I recall that wonderful dog my eyes are filling with tears. He was 18 years old when he died. Then came Velvet a beautiful velvet grey bitch, an absolute all-rounder, she was quiet and wide in the paddock and she’d bark on command in the yards. She would run over the backs of the sheep right to the front of the mob when we were shedding up and then come back through them, loading the shed up with ease. She was pretty to watch.
The Lachlan Valley Way pretty much bisects our property, and dear little Velvet was killed on the road, hit by a car when I was coming up to a gate. She jumped off the ute when I was towing a trailer that somehow scared her. She was two and a half and right in her prime. An elderly lady was driving the car that killed this beautiful dog, probably the best I ever had, and I felt such compassion for this poor lady who was shocked at what had happened. Although my heart was breaking at the demise of Velvet there was nothing I could do to help her. It took a long time for me to console this poor woman and finally I was able to convince her that what had happened was not her fault.
Nat was the next wonder dog, he came from Mandurama, about one hundred kilometres away. Colin Fitzhardinge had him but Nat proved to be a bit too willing for Colin, who was ageing, so he gave him to me. He was the most willing, big-hearted dog, another all-rounder, and so good in the yards when we were loading sheep through an automatic jetter, (a machine for applying a chemical to stop flies laying their eggs on the sheep), and needed some power. One evening when we were away and a mate was looking after things, the midnight-black Nat disappeared into the gathering dusk, probably sniffing out a dead sheep or a roo carcase on the road. They found him dead beside the road in the morning, another tragic loss.
It sounds like we were always having dogs hit on the road, but in 45 years of hundreds of road crossings, we only had two dogs killed….both were fantastic dogs that I missed terribly.
Anyway, to return to the Low Stress Stock Handling. Bud Williams deservedly gained a reputation as a man who could handle animals people were having trouble with. One skill good stockmen have is the ability to observe. Bud learnt through many years of experience that any animal that forms a herd, flock or mob, sheep, goats, reindeer, chooks, ducks, geese, cattle, horses, view humans as a predator. He figured that even domestic stock were hard wired to survive from predatory threats, especially from humans. These instinctive skills were gained over evolutionary time.
Humans also are hard wired to survive from minute by minute threats, because for most of human history before agriculture that is what our ancestors were doing. In fact one of the reasons we are so poor at thinking long-term into the future, is that we are hard wired from evolution to make amazing short term decisions to survive. We are still predominately doing this. Witness our unwillingness over the last fifty years to respond to the threats to our long term existence, of biodiversity loss. Likewise, the consequences of combusting in about 200 years, perhaps half of the coal, oil and gas that took fifty million years to lay down back in the Permian and Triassic swamps about 250 to 300 million years ago.
When there’s a crisis we can pull together and do wondrous things, and make amazing decisions together. But when the crisis abates, we return to previous behaviour, which, after all was what, to us, made sense of the world.
So we learnt the four principles of low stress livestock handling.
1 Animals want to go in the direction they are headed.
2 Animals want to follow other animals.
3 When confined, animals want to go past you, or in Bud’s parlance, go by you.
4 Animals don’t have a lot of patience.
If you know these things and have more patience than they do, you can achieve amazing things with no stress to the animals or yourself. When approaching livestock, mostly we have ridden or walked right up to them and they have responded to our entry into their flight zone, by moving away. If you observe a flock or herd as you approach them, at some stage they will become aware of you and heads will go up. This is the signal to you that your approach is making them anxious. If you then begin to move in a long almost flat zigzag, they are able to work out how far you are from them and it is possible to get much closer than when approaching directly. This action can take the stress of your presence off the stock. When they begin to move away from you, you must retreat, further removing stress. The mob will eventually begin to move forward, you just move across the back of them, never going forward around the side which has the effect of stopping the animals you are now in front of, and thus stopping movement.
Another movement-stopping action is if you follow behind the mob in the same direction they are travelling. If you do this they will invariably stop, turn and face you. You can easily test this with humans. Just follow close behind someone and keep pace with them; they will always stop and turn around to see what is going on. That is instinctive.
The forward motion of the mob is driven from the animals at the front. As they move forward, those behind them move up and the mob proceeds. To turn the mob keep going across the back and go out very wide, always at right angles to the direction of travel of the mob. To make a mob bend to the right go way out wide on the left till the lead animals are aware of you. They will bend away from you, provided you are not going forward.
In confined spaces like sheep and cattle yards, you could be inside an animal’s flight zone most of the time. To put sheep in a shed or through gates in yards, do not force from behind. Go to the gate at the front, or even outside the yard, face the stock and move in a rocking motion forwards and back. When you rock forwards the sheep feel pressure and will go by you into the shed, if they are going too fast rock away from the the direction of travel and parallel to the motion, i.e. in the same direction, and parallel to the movement, and they will steady right up. The slightest movement forward or back will either start or stop the movement of the mob. I have penned up on my own for four crutchers with one very quiet dog and did it without fuss, no noise and a full shed all day, quite incredible.
We have a gateway near our house that stock go through to get into a laneway that leads to the shearing shed. The dog runs were about fifteen metres from this gateway and I used to always have trouble getting stock started. Invariably we’d have to let all the dogs off and there would be a lot of shouting and stress all round. Now with the movements mentioned above and no dogs I have regularly put mobs of up to 5,500 sheep through this bottleneck with no noise and they have just walked straight through the gate without hesitating.
I drafted 350 calves from their mothers in a laneway out of a double gate with one gate tied to the back of my quad bike, using the rocking movements described above, and only missed three cows. I did this because the yards were a quagmire after a lot of rain and the lane had a hard gravel surface. Being able to do this saved us all an enormous amount of stress and work.
The other benefit of this incredible advance in knowledge is the safety angle and the feeling of accomplishment at being able to achieve this. Certainly something I would never have dreamed was possible, and a skill I now feel fortunate to have.
We are so blest in this country to have such abundant bird life. Although many species are struggling due to loss of habitat, compared to many countries we still have many birds on which to feast our eyes and senses. On Allendale, the Canberra ornithologists group have identified 125 species over the more than twenty years they have been counting.
In 1970 Allendale had only three percent tree cover, now there is almost twenty percent of the total area of our farm carrying woody and shrubby vegetation, which has provided much needed habitat in our over-cleared farm landscapes. The Boorowa river catchment now has only fifteen percent left of the original grassy box woodland.
Old mature trees are still dying, and once dead, their roots take up to one hundred years to rot to the point where they fall down in a storm. In this wet winter several long-dead trees have fallen down, meaning the loss of about twenty nesting hollows. Today on a tour around Allendale I found three large green yellow box trees that have fallen in the wind.
We have several hundred River Red gums, Yellow Box and Blakeleys Red Gum seedlings that have come up from seed fall since 2010. This has never happened in the forty five years I have been here. Actually, there probably have been germination events in the past, but due to our previous management, the seedlings would have been grazed out by set stocked sheep. Under conventional management where stock are left in one place for several months, these seedlings almost never turn into trees. Thus, the remaining mature trees have no offspring under conventional management. This means that trees, one of the key mechanisms for bringing new nutrients into the landscape are being lost forever. With them goes the habitat of a host of other species; birds that move out because they have no nesting sites, bats, a range of skinks, fungi that used to begin the long process of breakdown and return of the tree’s nutrients to join in the endless cycle of birth, life, death and decay. Other species left without a home are a myriad of beetles, moths, soil borne insects, bacteria, moulds and others unknown but that are as far as we know, integral to the healthy functioning of ecosystems.
Of course this same scenario played out in Europe over 10,000 years in the Northern Hemisphere after the beginnings of Agricultural societies. Then, human communities began a long process of altering landscapes with no knowledge of what the consequences would be. Survival was the dominant quest, conservation, and regeneration had not been thought of yet. The living community was abundant and human populations, low. However, the early human communities had a different philosophy of resource use when compared to societies based on agriculture. Early human societies saw themselves as part of the living community, a sharing culture having an intimate relationship with the physical and living community.
In Australia this latest catastrophic disturbance of altering the landscape has happened in a little over two hundred years. This is why the results seem so violent as the earth reacts to our disturbances.
On Allendale, young trees that have come up over the last few years are protected from grazing for about five years by moveable electrified tape which keeps the cattle out. It does not take much effort, the stock only graze each paddock for three to eight days a year. It is, however something one must consciously plan for and do.
As a result of our efforts, now we have several hundred trees that were free, and they are the children of the grassy box woodland ecosystem that evolved here. Allowing that to happen and helping these arboreal infants reach adulthood, makes us part of a long-running living community. It is tempting to say that we are an important part of the living community. However, I feel that we have been here for such a short time relative to most other species, that we should see ourselves as no more than a part of the functioning whole.
Humans like us have been altering the landscapes of the earth even before the dawn of agriculture. The difference was that when these communities were hunting and gathering as well as tending beds of (for example) yam daisies, their philosophy was completely different to later humans who began the practice of settled agriculture.
People like aboriginal communities in Australia, and other first nation peoples in the US, Canada, South America and others, considered themselves bound to the earth and part of the living plants and animals that lived with them, as well as the waters and the physical structure of the landscape. They had learnt through the hard times that they must consider the long term in their relationship with land. Failure to do this would lead to many deaths, something humans go to great lengths to avoid.
Compared to these peoples, our knowledge of the landscape and how everything is connected, is like the simplified deserts we have created wherever we have gone. We understand little. When agriculture began it was a shifting style of management as people spread laterally round the world and then moved more slowly north and south.
I read that one of the North American Indian tribes, when considering a decision that would impact on their ecosystems, had to think about the consequences of what they were proposing, for seven generations hence, before harvesting products from the landscape. We, on the other hand, tend to consider how our behaviour in agriculture affects our bank account this year. We hardly ever consider what the consequences will be, of the decisions we make, in anything but economic terms.
The forests of Mesopotamia were cut and used for fuel, housing and weapons several hundred years before the birth of Christ. These areas are still desertified. Countries like Iran and Iraq.
The forests of Europe and England were used for heating, ships, housing and furniture. The young soils of the northern hemisphere are minerally rich and the climate is generally higher in humidity than Australia. Australia has been geologically stable for vast ages of time. It is 300 million years since Australia was covered by an ice sheet and in the last 50 million years since we separated from Gondwana and began drifting north, only limited volcanic activity has led to rich, young soils. When the northern hemisphere groaned under kilometres of ice in the Pleistocene, Australia suffered a climate that was twice as dry and four times as windy as usual. Aboriginal families lived through that.
Now it is time for us to begin a relationship with land, a living community, that allows it to express it’s inherent abundance and diversity.
Land management that does the opposite is not appropriate for a life-friendly future.
The Spring growth in 2016 was big and bulky, following better than average rains in August, September and October. In November as the days lengthen and the weather gradually warms up, the huge body of feed begins the slow process of senescence (as illustrated in the image of the senescent landscape above). The grasses and other plants all change from growing leaves to making flowers, and then seeds for the next generation. The perennial grasses use a lot of energy at this time of year, storing energy in dormant buds as well as making seeds. In natural complex systems there is always a lot of extra capacity. Diversity is like a huge insurance effort against unforeseen disturbances.
Each day when I do the water run to make sure the cattle have water in their troughs, my senses are aroused by the tobacco-scent of the wilting feed. The colour of the grasses and other plants are changing from a bright emerald green to a less vibrant green, then gradually going through pale green and the beginnings of the yellowing that eventually turns to the straw-yellow of fully mature end of season dry grassland. This is not necessarily a linear process, it is dictated by rainfall and temperature, and day length. As the cool season plants senesce, so the warm season growers wake up and use the dwindling moisture to begin the annual job of harvesting sunlight. If it remains dry these warm weather species go into a holding pattern and are stingy in their use of available moisture, another insurance policy. If it rains these warm season plants put on a spurt of new growth. Over millennia they have evolved conservative strategies that ensure survival regardless of circumstance. If the management of grasslands is such that a big body of dry material covers the soil, the warm season species are sheltered from the extremes of heat and dryness.
Last week I was riding through paddocks grazed two weeks earlier, there was a mulch of dry grass about 150mm deep, and there were green plants coming through. The rainfall in December and January has been very low, only a few millimetres, and yet, when I parted the dry mulch and exposed the soil surface, there was moisture right at the surface. This was happening despite weeks of temperatures of above 35degrees C. The economic, environmental and human benefit of managing for full cover should be obvious and yet in the farming and grazing game my observation is that mostly, farmers manage to get rid of this safety blanket quite quickly, it only lasts about three months.
The energy stored in all the seeds in a grassland is an, as yet, unrealised potential, that assures the future. The stems of the grasses that have finished their growth, become the bed from which the now-dormant seeds will emerge when the conditions suitable for their germination arise. The nutrients stored in the structure of the dried plants are recycled by fungi, and other microscopic soil organisms that seem insignificant, but in reality are the big engine of life. When conditions arise that suit them there is an extraordinary proliferation of birth, growth, death and decay that releases the nutrients from the carbon rich cellulose in the stems and changes them to a plant-available form once more. In this process also, we see the extra capacity that has evolved in living complex systems. Not all the nutrients are returned for immediate uptake by the plant community, some is stored as humus, the resistant-to-breakdown black coal of the soil. The level of soil organic carbon reveals whether our farming systems are long term regenerative or exploitative. World-wide soil organic carbon levels are 70% lower now than in their native state, indicating that we are still unable to turn our love for land into practices that enable her to regenerate. Collectively we are still running her down.
This means that what we view as our success in agriculture, (higher yields, amazing technology etc), is likely to be the agent of many looming clashes we have hardly begun to take seriously and confront. Among others these are , soil erosion, loss of species, use of available water for the natural functioning of the water cycle, allowing water use by people to never compromise the natural flows of water, allowing forests to regenerate, and on and on.
Not all seeds are produced above ground. There are now lots of clover plants that were introduced to increase depleted nitrogen in farming land. Their effect has not all been what was expected. The seeds of these subterranean clovers is as their name suggests, they bury their seeds in the soil. Legumes such as clover and lucerne certainly bring more nitrogen into the nutrient pool through the action of rhizobia that take nitrogen from the atmosphere and store it in nodules on their roots. Like so many human-developed ideas there are unintended side effects that prove to be problematic. In the case of sub clover, the amount of nitrogen produced was far in excess of what grass plants could use and led to massive areas of gradually acidifying soil. Clovers come with a dependance on phosphorous, a mineral in low supply in most Australian soils. This created a dependence on purchased superphosphate much of which was tied up due to chemical reactions that bound about half of it to clay colloids. Now there is an industry selling calcium carbonate (lime), to try and correct the induced soil acidity unwittingly caused by the solution to a nitrogen deficiency.
Dealing with symptoms instead of addressing causes can be short-term gain for long-term pain. It is likely that set-stocking and fallowing (plowing land and leaving it idle for a season), were the causes of low nitrogen in grazing and cropping soils following the introduction of motorised farming. the motive power for engines had its roots in living plants and photosynthesis. I refer of course to what we like to call fossil fuel.
The problems we are creating and have created are biological in origin. Many of the big, diverse grasslands, grassy woodlands, prairies, shrublands and grassy savannahs of the world have been converted to monoculture croplands, or at the least, to mixed cropping and grazing. Either way the original diversity has been lost.
The livestock that once grazed these grasslands now finish their lives in confinement feedlots being fed grain grown on the land that once harboured the diverse grasslands. The energy costs of doing this and the high impact on the landscape indicate that these practices will be a passing phase in the history of agriculture. They are inherently inefficient, and are definitely not an improvement on the natural world.
Why does this matter?
The answer to that question is fundamental to our own future and to the future of all life. The diversity present in the natural ecosystems, found by the colonists from Europe when they roared out across the New World (from the fifteenth century), was the result of the process of evolution. Greedily we have exploited its natural wealth, not realising it’s importance and unknowingly assuming its inherent natural wealth was all for us. Nations were developed on the back of the conversion of this natural capital. A river of money flowed into Europe and the remnants of that New-World-Natural-Capital value still resides in the colonising countries.
Agriculture has been at the root of many of the looming clashes we see unfolding. Agriculture is the only answer to the problems also.
Farming in the image of the way the world works is already happening in every country. Farmers have begun to recognise that we can no longer go on using the life-destructive practices of the industrial farming model.
Changing to a regenerative model allows the natural processes of evolution, abundance of life and increasing diversity to proliferate.
Making a living while allowing this to happen is good for the human soul and necessary for the soul of the earth.